APG5043 Language in Society 社科 assignment 代写

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  • APG5043 Language in Society 社科 assignment 代写

    Assessment task title: Major essay

    Due date: 26 May

    Details of task: This assignment is an essay on one of a range of topics which reflect important theoretical issues in sociolinguistics. For this assignment you are expected to conduct wide-ranging research beyond the set readings for this course, though of course you are also welcome to cite the set readings where appropriate. All students have access to the extensive electronic collection of the Monash library and should avail themselves of these resources in preparing this assignment.
    Your essay should address one of the topics listed below. Some topics contain multiple questions/areas for exploration – in preparing your answer please make sure you have addressed all aspects of the topic and demonstrate a clear knowledge of the sociolinguistic theories informing your topic.
    1. To what extent has Australian English undergone Americanization in the last 30 years? Explore whether features are being taken from Standard US English, or non-standard varieties and the role of the mass media/ internet in the transmission of American usages.
    2. Why do dialects persist when standard varieties have greater prestige? Illustrate your argument with examples from at least two pairs of dialects and standard languages.
    3. Language change in progress: Women are more likely than men to use innovative variants in their speech. At the same time, women are more conservative in the sense that they choose prestige forms more often than men. Is this inconsistent? In your answer consider models of how language change spreads through communities.
    4. To what extent is speaking a heritage language an essential part of maintaining ethnic identity?
    5. Compare the methodologies used in variationist sociolinguistics and linguistic ethnography and assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches.
    6. Language activists have been lobbying for an amendment to the American constitution that would make English the official language of the United States. What are the key aims activists hope to achieve by such an amendment? Using language policy literature, evaluate how likely it is that an amendment would achieve its stated aims and discuss any potential problems with it. On balance do you agree or disagree with the idea of making English the official language of the United States?
    7. Do we need both an outsider and insider perspective in sociolinguistic research? Use examples to support your answer.
    8. To what extent does literature published in the last 15 years support the idea that women are more polite than men in the language they use in the workplace?
    Release dates: N/A

    Word limit: 3500 words. For this task you are expected to follow the word count to within 10%, and will be penalised if you go over or under. Note that your cover sheet and reference list do not contribute to your word count.

    Value: 40%

    Presentation requirements: pdf, doc or docx file submitted through both the Moodle assignment upload facility and also through Turnitin (see ‘assignment submission’ below for details on submitting assignments). Hard copy submission is not required.

    Estimated return date: Approximately 2 weeks after submission date

    Hurdle requirements: N/A

    Individual assessment in group tasks: N/A

    Criteria for marking: Your essay will be assessed on:
    • Clear identification and exploration of the major issues within the topic
    • Knowledge of key theories/ studies informing the topic
    • Evidence of wide reading
    • Critical engagement with theory, examples and previous literature to build your argument
    • Clear and accurate description of case studies/ empirical research used in the essay
    • Argument which is well-structured, logical and leads to clearly presented conclusions
    • Presentation/expression, including correct and consistent use of referencing conventions
    Detailed criteria will be provided in the marking rubric for this task, which will be provided on Moodle.

    Referencing requirements: Students are expected to follow the referencing standards of the APA 6th Edition.
    To build your skills in citing and referencing, and using different referencing styles, see the online tutorial Academic Integrity: Demystifying Citing and Referencing at http://www.lib.monash.edu/tutorials/citing/

    Additional information: Further information on this task will be provided on Moodle.
    APG5043Language  n in   Society
    Week 1: Introduction to
    • Unit outline
    • Knowledge about language ‐ communicative
    • Sociolinguistics and the relationship between
    language and society
    • Methodological approaches to studying language
    in society
    Welcome to Language in
    This unit explores key topics in sociolinguistics
    • Regional variation (dialects)
    • Social variation
    • Ethnolects (ethnically‐based varieties)
    • Style shifting
    • Gendered speech
    • Age‐based variation
    • Bilingualism, language contact
    • Language maintenance, shift, loss
    • Language policy
    Unit objectives
    1. Understand and be able to apply key terms and concepts
    used in sociolinguistics.
    2. Reflect on your own sociolinguistic repertoire.
    3. Apply sociolinguistic insights to your own professional
    4. Describe the main data gathering methods used in
    sociolinguistics, and select appropriate methods for a
    range of research questions.
    5. Engage in informed debate on matters of theoretical and
    practical significance in the areas of language and
    society, language education, language purism, and
    language planning.
    Unit materials
    1. Unit guide
    2. Moodle site
    3. Textbook and readings
    1. Unit guide
    Download the unit guide from the Moodle site if you have
    not already done so
    ◦ week‐by‐week topics and readings
    ◦ assessment details
    ◦ policies
    ◦ student services details
    2. Moodle site
    This is where we will communicate outside class
    ◦ discussion forums
    ◦ assignment submission facilities
    ◦ links to study resources (e.g. extra readings, assignment materials)
    Please check Moodle and your Monash email regularly!
    3. Textbook and readings
    Required textbook:
    Wardhaugh, R. & Fuller, J.M. (2015). An introduction to sociolinguistics
    (7th ed.), Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.
    Recommended resource:
    Allan, K., Bradshaw, J., Finch, G., Burridge, K., & Heydon, G. (2010). The
    English Language and Linguistics Companion. Houndmills, Basingstoke:
    Most weeks also have additional readings – you can download
    these from the library website (link on Moodle)
    Week Date
    Topic Readings
    1 Feb 27 Introduction to Sociolinguistics  Wardhaugh & Fuller Ch 1 and Ch 2
    2 Mar 6 Exploring regional and social variation  Wardhaugh & Fuller pp. 62-74 and Ch 6
    Wolfram & Schilling-Estes (2006), Oliver et al (2002)
    3 Mar 13 Measuring and explaining variation Wardhaugh & Fuller Ch 7
    O’Hanlon (2006)
    4 Mar 20 Language change Wardhaugh & Fuller Ch 8
    Pope, Meyerhoff & Ladd (2007), Tagliamonte & Denis
    5 Mar 27 Language attitudes and accommodation Wardhaugh & Fuller pp. 74-77 and 98-101
    Meyerhoff (2006), Neisen & Hay (2005)
    6 Apr 3 Sociolinguistic ethnography  Wardhaugh & Fuller Ch 9
    Heath & Street (2008), Bucholtz (2009)
    7 Apr 10 Gender and language  Wardhaugh & Fuller Ch 12
    Cameron (2005)
    Mid semester break 14/4–21/4
    8 Apr 24 The sociolinguistics of power Wardhaugh & Fuller Ch 10 and Ch 13
    Dominco et al (2005)
    9 May 1 Multilingualism and language choice Wardhaugh & Fuller pp. 82-98
    Grimes (1994), Myers-Scotton (2006)
    10 May 8 Language maintenance, shift and endangerment Schupbach (2009), Patrick (2007)
    OPTIONAL: Dorian (1998)
    11 May 15 Language contact Wardhaugh & Fuller Ch 5
    Trudgill (2006), Taylor-Leech (2012)
    12 May 22 Language policy and planning Wardhaugh & Fuller Ch 14
    Verhoef & Venter (2008)
    Class format
    Each week we have:
    1. 2 hour seminar
    2. 1 hour tutorial
    Please do the reading for each week before class,
    as we’ll be discussing issues/concepts raised in
    Contact Details
    Unit coordinator/lecturer:
    Dr Melanie Burns
    Email: Melanie.Burns@monash.edu
    Office: S530, Menzies (note: I’ve moved office)
    Office hour: 4‐5pm Thursdays (during semester
    only) or by appointment
    Assessment Task 1 (5%) Due 24 March
    ◦ Bibliography exercise: find and summarise a variationist
    sociolinguistic study published within the past two years
    Assessment Task 2 (25%) Due 28 April
    ◦ Sociolinguistic survey: carry out your own sociolinguistic
    study and present your results in report form
    Assessment Task 3 (40%) Due 26 May
    ◦ Major Essay: explore one of the essay topics listed in the
    unit guide concerning theoretical issues in sociolinguistics
    Assignment Submission
    You are required to submit assignments via the
    Moodle assignment upload facility and to also
    submit a copy of your assignments to Turnitin
    • Hard copy submission is not required for this unit
    • Assignments must be .doc, .docx, or .pdf
    • Must be a single file – no multiple documents 
    Assignment Submission
    See unit guide for detailed instructions regarding
    assignment format and submission guidelines.
    • Assignments will be returned via Moodle
    • Penalties apply for late submission without an extension (5%
    per day overdue)
    • If you anticipate having difficulties in submitting by the due
    date contact me as soon as possible
    • Extensions of more than 2 days will require a special
    consideration application
    Other assessment: Test
    Test (25%)
    ◦ to be completed any time between 9am 6 June and 5pm
    13 June
    ◦ two hour open‐book test completed through Moodle
    Other assessment:
    Participation (5%)
    ◦ Class attendance is compulsory. Please contact me if you
    anticipate any difficulties meeting the attendance
    ◦ Students are expected to participate in discussions by
    raising questions, giving their thoughts on class
    activities, and responding to the comments of others.
    Need any help?
    • If you feel overwhelmed in the unit or feel you are
    struggling, please do let me know
    • Monash provides many services to support students, see
    • I’ll pass on details on useful academic skills support
    services, such as the linguistics coursework students library
    sessions – see Moodle.
    Let’s Chat
    • Start speaking confidently
    • Fun classes run by student-facilitators
    • Learn through games and make friends
    • Register online –registration opens in
    early February
    Peer Support
    • Help with your academic English
    • Drop in sessions Monday – Friday in
    Clayton libraries (RLS Points)
    • Facilitated by your peers, one-on-one
    Develop your language for success
    • Polish Up Your Grammar
    Grammar workshops
    Register online
    • Speaking with Confidence
    Pronunciation and public
    speaking course
    Register online
    All programs are
    Knowledge about language
    • Knowledge of the sounds of a language
    • Knowledge of words
    • Knowledge of grammar
    • Knowledge of how to use language
    “Knowing a language also means knowing how to use that language,
    since speakers know not only how to form sentences but also how to
    use them appropriately” (Wardhaugh & Fuller, 2015, p. 5)
    Communicative competence
    What we say and how we say it is not just dependent on the
    resources a language provides but is also determined by the
    norms and rules of a society
    For example, norms and rules regarding:
    ◦ Being polite
    ◦ Being relevant/appropriate
    A simple example...
    The following are some common greetings:
    Good morning/afternoon/evening
    What would be an appropriate context of use for each of these? Are there
    any circumstances where the use of any of the above greetings would be
    deemed impolite or inappropriate?
    What would be an appropriate response to each of the above greetings?
     Language is not simply a fixed set of rules to which
    speakers always adhere
     Linguists distinguish between what speakers know
    about language and how speakers actually use
     There is a great deal of variation in how individual
    speakers use language
    Differences in how individual speakers use a language can
    be explored in terms of issues of identity
    Popular understandings of identity:
    ◦ individual
    ◦ constant/unchanging
    ◦ personality/traits
    ◦ singular, the ‘core’ of who we are
    Newer understandings of identity:
    ◦ relationship to groups (group identity vs individual identity)
    ◦ changing or even contradictory
    ◦ plural (identities)
    ◦ not expressed but performed
    “the active negotiation of an individual's relationship with larger social
    constructs” (Mendoza‐Denton, 2002, p. 475)
    “the social positioning of self and Other” (Bucholtz & Hall, 2004)
    We each have a range of identities, formed through social
    interaction and our experiences with the world.
    ◦ e.g. student, Australian, male, footballer, waitress, parent, sister, etc,
    Reflect on your own identity: How do you define your identity? What do
    you think are the essential components of your identity?
    Identity and language
    Identities are performed
    ◦ Not “I talk like a white middle‐class woman because I (already) am a white
    middle‐class woman”  but the way I talk in part constitutes this (Cameron,
    1995, p. 16)
    What features of the way you speak do you feel say something about
    your identity? What do you think others can tell about you from the way
    you talk?
    This emphasis on identities as socially situated follows a
    shift in linguistics from focussing on individual speakers and
    languages to how different social groups use language
    Human societies are complex and socially differentiated,
    and linguistic resources reflect these social differences
    Sociolinguistics is the study of language in its social context
    – the relationship between language and society
    ◦ Does social structure influence linguistic structure/behaviour?
    ◦ Does linguistic structure/behaviour influence social structure?
    Sociolinguistics vs sociology of language
    ◦ Do we explore the relationship between linguistic variables and
    social variables to understand more about linguistic processes (e.g.
    language change) or social structure (e.g. power)?
    Linguistic variants
    A variant is one of several different forms speakers could
    use for the same thing (the variable)
    ◦ e.g. footpath, sidewalk and pavement are three variants
    in English for the concept “path for pedestrians running
    between buildings and the street”
    Variants may be:
     words
     different pronunciations
    e.g. [n] [ŋ] or [nk] as final sound in words like nothing
     different grammatical forms
    e.g. the data was collected vs. the data were collected
    Social factors
     region (does a linguistic feature vary regionally?)
     age (age‐related variation)
     gender (gendered speech)
     context (style shifting)
     ethnicity (ethnically‐based varieties)
    Can you think of any other social factors which may
    influence linguistic variants?
    Varieties of English
    As competent speakers we’re attuned to many
    sociolinguistic differences that allow us to
    distinguish various varieties of English
    ◦ even if we can’t identify what it is about someone’s
    language tells us they’re from the US, or are working class
    etc, we generally pick up on these cues really quickly
    Think of a variety of English that you know well. What are
    the features of language you associate with this variety?
    When does one variety stop
    and another begin?
    • Often tricky to distinguish, as sociolinguistic variation is
    normally statistical rather than categorical
    –people will often use more than one variant in their speech: they
    might for example say nothing 80% of the time, but say nothink 20%
    of the time, rather than using one variant 100% of the time
    • Moving from one variety to another often sees a gradual
    change in the frequency with which speakers use each of
    the possible variants, rather than an abrupt shift from
    everyone using one variant to everyone using another
    When does one variety stop
    and another begin?
    Varieties can also be tricky to isolate because the one
    speaker will often change the frequency with which they
    use marker variants between different social contexts
    However, we can say that if two speakers use different
    variants for a number of variables then they are speaking
    different varieties.
    Different methodological approaches to
    studying language in society
    Variationist sociolinguistics is concerned with
    documenting and explaining this type of language
    To do this, researchers survey a large pool of
    speakers and count the frequency with which they
    use each variant.
    Variationist sociolinguistics
    • statistical surveys which look for overarching patterns (i.e.
    people who do X will also do Y)
    • thus, variationistsprefer variables where the list of variants is
    quite clear cut
    • tend to concentrate on broad social categories when
    dividing up their populations for analysis
    • for example, contrasting men and women, older and younger
    speakers, or people living in different places or from different
    social classes
    Different methodological approaches to
    studying language in society
    A more nuanced understanding of the ways in
    which language is used and negotiated in particular
    settings is achieved in ethnographic research.
    Variationist vs Ethnographic
    Variationist studies: large and focussed on
    generalisations (e.g. what are the main differences in
    the speech of 100 men and 100 women in Australia?)
    Ethnographies: generally small‐scale and focus on small
    differences in language use and understanding the local
    meaning attributed to these differences.
    Ethnographic research: An
    In her famous ethnography of a US high school,
    Penny Eckert (2000) found that how students
    pronounced their vowels was related to their social
    group membership at school (particularly whether
    students were heavily involved in school activities
    versus one who is on the edge of dropping out)
    Group membership was also linked to other
    aspects of self‐presentation, e.g.:
    • what kind of clothes the students wore
    •where they ate their lunch
    •what sort of activities they engaged in after school
    and at the weekend.
    A variationist example: Change
    in Australian English
    Lee (2002) is an example of a variationist study
    from an Australian context
    She researched grammatical change in Australian
    English, and particularly whether older and
    younger speakers have different attitudes about
    the acceptability of certain constructions
    Lee (2002)
    Lee compared the attitudes of 104 teachers and
    263 students to disputed usage through a three‐
    pronged method:
    ◦ A judgement test where participants were asked them
    to mark sample sentences as acceptable/unacceptable
    ◦ A cloze test (fill in the missing word in a sentence)
    ◦ An editing test, where participants were given the
    opportunity to change sentences to make them more
    like their actual usage
    Lee (2002)
    • Not only linguistically interesting, Lee’s findings are
    important from an education perspective
    • they alert us to the ways in which Australian English is
    changing, and the fact that many teachers in the study were
    still marking as ‘incorrect’ grammatical forms that actually
    seem to be widely used and accepted in Australian English
    Summary of some of the grammatical forms Lee investigated, and
    the percentage of students and teachers who marked them as
    acceptable in the judgement test:
    An ethnographic study: Language
    choice in a multilingual school
    An ethnographic study was conducted by a team
    led by Monica Heller (2006) at a French‐speaking
    high school in Ontario, Canada.
    ◦ Ontario is predominantly English‐speaking, but borders Quebec and,
    like Quebec, has a population of ancestral French speakers (some of
    whom make greater use of French in their daily lives than others)
    Language choice in a multilingual
    The school Heller studied was first established
    to cater to this indigenous French‐speaking
    population, but has also attracted:
    ◦English‐speaking families who want their children to
    master high‐level competence in a second language
    ◦immigrants from French speaking nations
    Heller (2006)
    • Heller discovered that peer groups within the school
    divided on linguistic lines
    • each group used French (and other languages) in different
    ways, both socially and in the classroom
    • The four key peer groups Heller identified were:
    – Students from working class Franco‐Ontario families (the original audience of
    the school)
    – Students from middle class English‐speaking families
    – Students from Quebec (used to living in a French Canadian milieu)
    – Somali‐born students who had been educated in French prior to immigration
    A key point of difference for the peer
    groups was what language they chose to
    speak socially at school
    • The Somali and Quebecois students (who were generally new to the
    school at the time of Heller’s study) were surprised and dismayed to
    find other students only spoke English in their peer groups.
    • Strong dichotomy between the peer groups:
    • Somali and Quebecois students lacked the fluency in conversational
    English to join other peer groups
    • other students lacked fluency and/or confidence in conversational French
    to engage Somali and Quebecois students
    • This was also an issue of willingness – most established students saw
    little reason to bother to accommodate these newcomers
    French, like English, is a  pluricentric 
    language (multiple standard varieties)
    • The school was contradictory at times, sometimes supporting and
    validating the norms of Canadian French, and sometimes rejecting them
    as “bad French” and preferring the norms of Parisian French.
    – creates a dichotomy between:
    1. English speaking and Somali students (learnt their French in school so
    have acquired a more formal variety, free of many of the features of
    Canadian French)
    2. Franco‐Ontario and Quebecois (who have learnt their French through
    interaction with other speakers of Canadian French – meaning they
    have better conversational fluency on informal topics, but not always
    “correct” according to school norms)
    This was a difficult situation for the school to resolve
    because it had been established to support Canadian
    French, but was concerned that academic standards require
    students to master ‘good’ French.
    Heller’s study raises a number of important questions about
    language policy and planning, as well as issues of inequality
    Heller (2006)
    • This study highlights that knowing whatever is
    deemed to be the ‘correct’ variety is often a key
    component of success in education,
    employment etc.
    • The study also shows how sociolinguistic
    analysis can help us better understand conflicts
    surrounding language use and create policy that
    leads to more equitable outcomes.
    A note on writing down
    • One of the areas of interest for sociolinguists is studying
    different accents. In order to write down differences in
    pronunciation, linguists use the International Phonetic
    Alphabet (IPA)
    • The IPA allows us to accurately record the pronunciation of
    any word in any language by any speaker
    • Writers indicate that they are writing in IPA by placing the
    sound or word in square brackets. Thus [i] indicates the
    sound ‘ee’ and [hit] is the English word ‘heat’ (not hit!)
    Next week…
     We’ll explore regional and social variation
     We’ll talk about assignment 1
    This week’s readings:
    Wardhaugh & Fuller Ch 1 and Ch 2
    Next week’s readings:
    Wardhaugh & Fuller pp. 62‐74 and Ch 6
    Wolfram & Schilling‐Estes (2006)
    Oliver et al (2002)

    APG5043 Language in Society 社科 assignment 代写
    Bucholtz, M. & Hall, K. (2004). Language and identity. In A. Duranti (Ed.), A companion to linguistic
    anthropology (pp. 369–394). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Cameron, D. (1995). Verbal hygiene. London: Routledge.
    Eckert, Penelope (2000). Language variation as social practice. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Heller, Monica (2006). Linguistic minorities and modernity: A sociolinguistic ethnography (2nd
    ed.). London: Continuum
    Lee, Jackie (2002). Attitudes towards disputable usages among Australian teachers and students.
    Australian Review of Applied linguistics, 21, 109‐29.
    Mendoza‐Denton, N. (2002). Language and identity. In J. K. Chambers, P. Trudgill & N. Schilling‐
    Estes (Eds.), The handbook of language variation and change (pp. 475–499). Malden, MA:
    Wardhaugh, R. & Fuller, J.M. (2015). An introduction to sociolinguistics (7th ed.), Malden, MA:
    Wiley Blackwell.
    APG5043 Language in Society 社科 assignment 代写